Booting para-virtualised OS instances# Feb 21, 2007
For dom0 to be able to boot a para-virtualised domU, it needs to be able to bootstrap it. In particular, it needs to be able to read the kernel file and its associated ramdisk so it can hand off control to the kernel's entry point when the domain is created. And we must somehow make these files accessible in the dom0. Previously, you had to somehow copy out the files from the domU filesystem into dom0. This was often difficult (consider getting files off an ext2 filesystem in a Solaris dom0), and was obviously prone to errors such as forgetting to update the copies when upgrading the kernel.
For a while now Xen has had support for a bootloader. This runs in userspace and is responsible for copying out the files (that specified by kernel and ramdisk in the domain's config file) to a temporary directory in dom0; the files are then passed on to the domain builder. Xen has shipped with a bootloader called pygrub. Whilst somewhat confusingly named, it essentially emulated the grub menu. It had backends for a couple of Linux filesystems written in Python and worked by searching for a grub.conf file, then presenting a lookalike grub menu for the user to interact with. When an entry was selected, the specified files would be read off the filesystem and passed back to the builder.
This worked reasonably well for Linux, but we felt there was a number of problems. First, the interactive menu only worked for first boot; subsequent reboots would automatically choose an entry without allowing user interaction (though this is now fixed in xen-unstable). Its interactive nature seemed quite a stumbling block for things like remote domain management; you really don't want to babysit domain creation. Also, the implementation of the filesystem backends wasn't ideal; there was only limited Linux filesystem support, and it didn't work very well.
We've adapted pygrub to help with some of these issues. First, we replaced the filesystem code with a C library called libfsimage. The intention here is to provide a stable API for accessing filesystem images from userspace. Thus it provides a simple interface for reading files from a filesystem image and a plugin architecture to provide the filesystem support. This plugin API is also stable, allowing filesystems past, present and future to be transparently supported. Currently there are plugins for ext2, reiserfs, ufs and iso9660, and we expect to have a zfs plugin soon. We borrowed the grub code for all of these plugins to simplify the implementation, but the API allows for any implementation.
Some people were suggesting solutions involving loopback mounts. This was problematic for us for two main reasons. First, filesystem support in the different dom0 OS's is far from complete; for example, Solaris has no ext2 support, and Linux has no (real) ZFS support. Second, and more seriously, it exposes a significant gap in terms of isolation: the dom0 kernel FS code must be entirely resilient against a corrupt domU filesystem image. If we are to consider domU's as untrusted, it doesn't make sense to leave this open as an attack vector.
Another simple change we made was to allow operation without a grub.conf at all. You can specify a kernel and ramdisk and make pygrub automatically load them from the domU filesystem. Even easier, you can leave out all configuration altogether, and a Solaris domU will automatically boot the correct kernel and ramdisk. This makes setting up your config for a domU much easier.
pygrub understands both fdisk partitions and Solaris slices, so simply specifying the disk will cause the bootloader to look for the root slice and grab the right files to boot.
There's more work we can do yet, of course.